Hydroquinone is a skin lightening agent that combats hyperpigmentation, which is why so many products that seek to diminish dark spots contain it. It聽is an ingredient used to remove the dark spots caused by acne, scarring, birth control pills, hormone treatments, or pregnancy. It does this by聽decreasing the number of melanocytes聽in the stratum basale, or the bottom layer of the epidermis. These are the cells that produce melanin, a skin pigment responsible for hyperpigmentation.

Historically, there鈥檚 been some back-and-forth on the safety of hydroquinone. In 1982, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration recognized the ingredient assafe and effectiveTrusted Source.

Several years later, concerns about safety prompted retailers to pull hydroquinone from the market. The FDA went on to discover that many of the products in question contained contaminants like mercury. They established that these contaminants were behind reports of adverse effects.

Since then, the FDA has confirmed that hydroquinone can be safely sold over the counter (OTC) in 2 percent concentrations.

Read on to learn more about how it works, who might benefit from use, products to try, and more.

How does it work ?聽

Hydroquinone bleaches your skin by decreasing the number of melanocytes present. Melanocytes make melanin, which is what produces your skin tone.

In cases of hyperpigmentation, more melanin is present due to an increase in melanocyte production. By controlling these melanocytes, your skin will become more evenly toned over time.

It takes about four weeks on average for the ingredient to take effect. It may take several months of consistent use before you see full results.

If you don鈥檛 see any improvements within three months of OTC use, talk to your dermatologist. They may be able to recommend a prescription-strength formula better suited to your needs.

What skin conditions can benefit from ?聽

Hydroquinone is used to treat skin conditions related to hyperpigmentation. This includes:

Acne scars, age spots, freckles, melasma and post-inflammatory marks frompsoriasisandeczema

Although hydroquinone can help fade red or brown spots that have lingered, it won鈥檛 help with active inflammation. For example, the ingredient can help minimize acne scarring, but it won鈥檛 have an effect on redness from active breakouts.

Is it safe for all skin types ?聽

Although hydroquinone is generally well-tolerated, there are a few exceptions.

If you havedry or sensitive skin, you may find that hydroquinone causes further dryness or irritation. This usually tapers off as your skin adjusts to the ingredient.

People who have normal or oily skin are less likely to experience these side effects.

The ingredient tends to work best on fair skin tones. If you have a medium-to-dark skin tone, talk with your dermatologist before use. Hydroquinone may actually worsen hyperpigmentation in darker skin tones.

How to use Hydroquinone ?

Consistency is key to treating hyperpigmentation. You鈥檒l want to use this ingredient every day for maximum results. Follow all product instructions carefully.

It鈥檚 important to do a patch test before your first full application. This will allow you to determine how your skin will react and whether it results in unwelcome side effects.

To do this:

  • Rub a small amount of the product into the inside of your forearm.
  • Cover the area with a bandage.
  • Wash your hands to prevent the product from staining your clothes or other materials.
  • Wait 24 hours.
  • Discontinue use if you experience severe itching or other irritation during this time.

If you don鈥檛 experience any side effects, you should be able to safely add it to your skin care routine. You should apply it after cleansing and toning, but before your moisturizer.

Take just a small amount of the product and apply it evenly across the entire area of skin. Gently massage into your skin until it鈥檚 completely absorbed.

Make sure you wash your hands after use 鈥 this will prevent the product from affecting other areas of skin or staining your clothes and other materials.

You should also wear sunscreen while using this ingredient. Sun exposure can not only make hyperpigmentation worse, but also reverse the effects of your hydroquinone treatment.

Sunscreen is usually the last step of a skin care routine. Be sure to reapply as needed throughout the day.

While consistency is important for maximum results, you shouldn鈥檛 use it for long periods of time. If you don鈥檛 see any improvement after three months, discontinue use.

If you do see improvement, you can use the product for up to four months, and then begin to taper off use. You shouldn鈥檛 use it for more than five months at a time.

If you want to begin using the product again, wait two to three months before you resume use.